La intervención del poder pontificio en la revuelta de 1318-1320 en territorio compostelano. Juan XXII y Berenguel de Landoira

Xosé M. Sánchez Sánchez

Resumen


Resumen: En el presente artículo realizamos un análisis, sobre la base de documentación inédita del Archivo Secreto Vaticano, de los inicios de la prelatura de Berenguel de Landoira en la Iglesia de Santiago. Se examina la revuelta que tiene lugar en la ciudad de Compostela en 1318-1320 y la actitud del pontificado, personificado en Juan XXII . Asimismo, se inserta el levantamiento en el seno de las políticas pontificias de la primera mitad del siglo xiv. Se considera el nombramiento de Berenguel en el seno de la intervención del pontificado y de la actuación de Juan XXII dentro de la centralización eclesiástica de la Iglesia occidental.

Palabras clave: Iglesia de Santiago, pontificado, Berenguel de Landoira, pontífice Juan XXII , siglo xiv.

Abstract: The revolt that was developed in the city of Compostela at 1381-1320 is fundamental to understand the relationship maintained by the political powers, with the feudal power as strongpoint, by a triangle with three well defined vortex: the Church of Santiago, the pontificate, now in Avignon, and the Compostellan bourgeoisie. Here we will make a turn in the analysis of this chapter incorporating a new set of sources and reflections. In this sense, we incorporate an unpublished group of sources that completes the already well-known information. The sources used until today, related with this episode, had its main point in the 14th century chronicle Gesta Berengarii de Landoria archiepiscopi Compostellani and the Compostellan documentation. Taking in consideration the studies already done, we will take many sources that will give to us a different vision. We are talking about the unpublished documentation guarded at the Vatican Secret Archive, and completed with the one of the Archive of the Cathedral of Santiago; taking this sources we will try to give a new vision. So, we incorporate, as end of the article, a short documental appendix with the references of that Vatican documentation. The pontificate of John XXII, between 1316 and 1334, marks indeed the beginning of the entralization of the Occidental Church. It is at his Avignonese period when the papacy takes as organization model the organization of the national monarchies, around the idea of the universal monarchy, and now the Church organizes herself as a pontifical monarchy, with several administrative organisms. This considerations has importance in our investigation because through this centralization of power, political and administrative, and through the designations, the disposition of ecclesiastical benefits and bishopric elections, the pontificate tried to avoid the lay influence, naming his most favourable candidates; this is the circumstance that guides the arriving of Berenguel of Landoira to the Compostellan archbishopric. This way, considering the confrontation, the pontiff tries to give to the archbishop all the ways and resources in order to effort his position and make stronger his figure. John XXII could do little, materially, in the distance, but could give to his prelate certain tools. This are several actuations oriented to give the new archbishop many resources economical as human, making possible to situate his trustful pieces on this complicated table. Then, following the information of the considered documental sources, we can establish three ways that conforms the John XXII ’s action in this conflict: the effort of the archbishopric authority related with his political power; the absolute condemn of the insurrectionists, as his excommunication; and the several economic and pastoral concessions to the prelate in order to make easier his work and to increase his resources. We make a travel through one of the most interesting conflicts, inside the feudal system, at the medieval Galicia low Middle Ages, considering several unpublished and unconsidered sources —specially Vatican sources—, that gives to us a new point of view and that completes the already existing considerations.

Keywords: Church of Saint Jacques, papacy, Berenguel of Landoira, pope John XXII , 14th century.


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